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2019考研:英语虚拟语气和状语从句解析

来源:研途宝考研网 分类:考研英语 2018-06-20 10:39:52

  一、考点概述

  虚拟语气有不同的体现形式,在考研英语中多个题型中都有体现,既是考研英语学习的难点,也是考生易失分处。在考研英语中命题频率最高的是if虚拟条件句,考生需要掌握其形式及其反映的意义。此外,还有if虚拟条件句的省略倒装句式,以及暗含条件的虚拟语气也是考生学习重点。对其他类型的虚拟语气也要有所了解。对于常见的特殊虚拟语气可以当作固定句式准确记忆。

  二、要点精析

  虚拟语气主要是表示动作或状态不是客观存在的事实,而是说话人的主观愿望、假设或推测等。虚拟语气,作为动词的一种表现形式,主要是通过动词的不同时态来体现。主要有以下几种:

  1.If引导的虚拟条件句

  既可以是真实条件状语从句,也可以是非真实条件状语从句。

  (1)表示对现在事实的假设

  条件状语从句谓语用过去时,如是谓语动词为be动词时只能用were,主句谓语用should/would/could/might+动词原形。

  例:If I were a bird, I could fly out of the world. 如果我是一只鸟,我会飞离这个世界。

  (2)表示对过去事实的假设

  条件状语从句谓语用过去完成时,主句谓语用should/would/could/might+ have+过去分词的形式。

  例:If you had not hurried, you would have missed the train.

  如果你没抓紧的话,早就错过了这班车了。

  (3)表示对将来事实的假设

  条件状语从句谓语用过去时,主句谓语用should/would/could/might+ 动词原形的形式。

  例:If I should win the lottery, I would buy a car. 如果我中彩票了,会买一辆车。

  (4)省略if的倒装句

  虚拟条件句的从句部分如果含were, should或had, 可将if省略,再把were,should或had移到从句句首,构成倒装。

  例:Had I enough money, I would run a company. (= If I had enough money, I would…)

  如果我有足够的钱,就会自己开办公司。

  2.表示愿望的虚拟语气

  表示主观愿望时可以用wish, if only, would rather/ would sooner/ would just as soon, would prefer, might as well 等。

  (1)wish 后的宾语从句的用法

  ① 表示对现在情况的虚拟:从句动词用过去式或过去进行式表示,be的过去式用were。

  ② 表示对过去情况的虚拟:从句动词用had+过去分词。

  ③ 表示对将来的主观愿望:谓语动词形式为would/ could/ should/might+动词原形。

  (2)if only引导的感叹虚拟句:表示“要是……就好了”

  ① 表示与现在或未来事情的感叹虚拟句中,谓语一般用过去时或would/ could/ should/might+动词原形。

  ② 表示对过去发生事情的感叹虚拟句中,谓语用过去完成时。

  (3)在would rather等句中的用法

  在would rather, would sooner, would just as soon, might as well和would prefer等后面所跟的从句中,也可以用虚拟语气表示愿望,意为“宁愿、但愿”。

  ① “would rather/ would sooner等+主语+谓语动词过去时”,表示现在或将来的情况。

  ② “would rather/ would sooner等+主语+谓语动词过去完成时”,表示过去的情况。

  3.特殊的虚拟条件句

  (1)暗含条件的虚拟语气

  常见的引导暗含条件句的词或短语有:without, but for, but that, otherwise, given, provided, supposing, were it not for等。

  例:Without your help, we could not have succeeded.

  要是没有你的帮助,我们就不会成功的。

  (2)状语从句中含有虚拟语气

  ① as if/as though引导的方式状语从句

  ② lest/ in case/for fear that引导的目的状语从句:谓语动词是should+动词原形

  (3)名词性从句中含有虚拟语气

  ① 主语从句中的虚拟语气

  在“it is (was) +形容词(或过去分词)+that…”结构中,如果形容词或过去分词表示建议、命令和要求等,那么that引导主语从句中的谓语动词要求用虚拟语气,其形式为:should+动词原形。

  ② 宾语从句中的虚拟语气

  某些表示建议、命令和要求意义的动词后所接宾语从句中的谓语动词要求用虚拟语气,其形式为:should +动词原形。适用的动词有:ask, advise, determine, command, insist, move,propose, order, recommend, request, require, suggest, urge, demand, direct等。

  (4)特殊句型中含有虚拟语气

  It’s (high/about) time…从句中的虚拟语气,意为“是做某事的时候了”,从句中谓语动词用一般过去时。

  三、真题体验

  Countless divorced politicians would have been elected out of office years ago had they even thought of a divorce, let alone gotten one. [2002, 完型]

  分析:

  A. 分析句子结构。该句主句是Countless divorced politicians would have been elected。had they even thought of a divorce 是从句,是省略if的倒装条件句。out of office years ago和let alone gotten one都是状语。

  B. 分析虚拟语气。主句Countless divorced politicians would have been elected和从句中 had they even thought of a divorce中的谓语动词分别是would have been elected、 had thought,体现了虚拟语气。其中,从句是省略了if倒装条件句。

  C. 译文:现如今,许多政客都纷纷离婚,这要是在几年前都是不可能的。那时,不说真的离婚了,只要他们有离婚的想法,就一定会被赶下台。

  状语从句 (Adverbial Clause)指句子用作状语时,起副词作用的句子。它可以修饰谓语、非谓语动词、定语、状语或整个句子。根据其作用可分为时间、地点、原因、条件、目的、结果、让步、方式和比较等从句。状语从句一般由连词(从属连词)引导,也可以由词组引起。从句位于句首或句中时通常用逗号与主句隔开,位于句尾时可以不用逗号隔开。英语状语从句用在主句后面的较多,而汉语的状语从句用在主句前的较多,因此,在许多情况下,应将状语从句放在主句前面。下面我们通过一些实例说明其常用的翻译方法。

  【真题例句1】

  While there are almost as many definitions of history as there are historians, modern practice most closely conforms to one that sees history as the attempt to recreate and explain the significant events of the past.

  【解析】

  可拆分为:While there are almost as many definitions of history //as there are historians, // modern practice most closely conforms to one // that sees history //as the attempt to recreate and explain the significant events of the past.

  主句:modern practice most closely conforms to one;从句:让步状语从句While there are almost as many definitions of history as there are historians;比较状语从句as there are historians;定语从句that sees history as the attempt to recreate and explain the significant events of the past修饰one。主干结构是While there are almost as... as there are... +主句,While引导让步状语从句,此句与汉语句序符合汉语习惯未作调整,仍放于主句前。从句中as... as结构是比较级,这句话直译为“有多少历史学家,就有多少关于历史的定义。

  【参考译文】

  几乎每个历史学家对史学都有自己的界定,但现代史学家的实践最趋向于认为,历史学是试图重现过去的重大史实并对其做出解释。

  【真题例句2】

  In general, the tests work most effectively when the qualities to be measured can be most precisely defined and least effectively when what is to be measured or predicted can not be well defined.

  【解析】

  可拆分为:In general, //the tests work most effectively //when the qualities to be measured can be most precisely defined //and least effectively //when what is to be measured or predicted can not be well defined.

  主句:the tests work most effectively when... and least effectively when...,主句中嵌套了两个并列的时间状语从句when the qualities to be measured can be most precisely defined和when... can not be well defined,第二个时间状语从句中又嵌套了一个主语从句what is to be measured or predicted做此状语从句的主语。本句在翻译的时候将一个主从复合句,适当调整成了两个独立的单句(即:the tests work most effectively when..., and the tests work least effectively when...),并把两个状语分别提前了,更符合汉语表达习惯。

  【参考译文】

  一般地说,当所要测定的特征能很精确界定时,测试最为有效;而当所要测定或预测的东西不能明确地界定时,测试的效果则最差。


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